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Ciardiello's Four Levels of Questions

Memory Questions
Signal words: who, what, where, when

Convergent Thinking Questions
Signal words/short question stems: why, how, in what ways?

Divergent Thinking Questions
Signal words/short question stems: imagine, suppose, predict;
If ... then ..., How might ..., Can you create ..., What are some possible consequences...

Evaluative Thinking
Signal words/short question stems: defend, judge, justify/What do you think ..., What is your opinion ...?

Cognitive operations: naming, defining, identifying, designating, yes or no responses

Cognitive operations: explaining, stating relationships, comparing and contrasting

Cognitive operations: predicting, hypothesizing, inferring, reconstructing

Cognitive operations: Valuing, judging, defending, justifying choices

Naming: What is a synonym for democracy?
Defining: Where is the 38th parallel in Korea?
Identifying: Who is Andrew Jackson?
Designating: When does the 21st century officially begin?
Yes or no: Are 18-year-olds allowed to vote in the U.S.?

Explaining: Why was U.S. President Andrew Johnson impeached?
Stating relationships: How was the invasion of Grenada a modern day example of the Monroe Doctrine in action?
Comparing and contrasting: In what ways is the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa similar to the civil rights movement in the United States?

Predicting: What predictions can you make regarding the budget surplus in the year 2000? Hypothesizing: How might life have been different in the United States if the South had won the Civil War?
Inferring: What are some possible consequences of the fall of communism in Eastern Europe? Reconstructing: Can you create a new amendment granting equal rights to women?


Valuing: How do you feel about abortion for teenagers?
Judging: What do you think of capital punishment for drug dealers? Defending: Why did you vote for Bill Clinton? Justifying choices: Why would you prefer to live in the suburbs?

Ciardiello, Angelo V. "Did You Ask a Good Question Today? Alternative Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 42.3 (1998): 210-219. Professional Development Collection. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. .